We target at the principle of zero waste and provide management of wastes using an integrated approach in order to control our wastes within the framework of the principles of sustainable development and leave a developed Turkey and a livable world to the future generations.
Biogas technology allows both generation of power from organic rooted waste substances and availing the wastes to the soil. It is a renewable environment friendly energy and fertilizer source.
It is a gas mixture which is released as a consequence of fermentation of organic based waste(s) in an oxygen-free environment (anaerobic), which is odorless and colorless, lighter than air, which burns with a bright blue flame and which contains in its composition approximately 40-70% methane, 30-60% carbon dioxide, 0-3% hydrogen sulfur and very slight amount of nitrogen and hydrogen depending on composition of organic substances
The methane gas which is created in natural environment from the content of wastes used as raw material in biogas facilities and which cannot be controlled leads to greenhouse effect 23 times more than carbon dioxide.
Biogas is predominantly methane and carbon dioxide gas created as a consequence of biological fission of organic substances in an oxygen free environment (anaerobic fermentation). Transformation of various organic substances into methane and carbon dioxide is realized by mixed microbiological flora. As a consequence of oxygen free degradation (anaerobic fermentation), the methane gas;
In this phase, the bacteria groups disintegrate organic carbohydrates, proteins and fats, the three basic elements of matter and transform the same into CO2, acetic acid and transform a major part of the same volatile organic substances.
In this phase, the acetogenic bacteria groups which are released as a consequence of the first phase and which transforms volatile fat acids into acetic acid intervene and some acetogenic bacteria transform the volatile fat acids into acetic acid and hydrogen.
In this last phase of anaerobic fermentation; the bacteria groups which create methane intervene and some methane creating bacteria release methane and water using carbon dioxide and hydrogen whereas the other group of methane creating bacteria create methane and carbon dioxide using the acetic acid released as a consequence of the second phase.
Disposal of wastes without being evaluated within the process of recycling and regaining leads to serious losses of sources both in materials terms and in terms of energy. The principle of zero waste should be targeted at in order to control our wastes within the framework of the principles of sustainable development, to leave clean and developed Turkey and a livable world to the future generations and the wastes should be managed with an integrated approach.
Advantages of zero waste approach;
The “United Nations Climate Change Framework Contract” which was made available for undersigning in 1992 in the United Nations “Environment and Development Conference” in Rio de Janerio city of Brazil and which was signed by 191 countries including Turkey and the European Union in 1994. This contract which was signed under United Nations and which is the first intergovernmental framework contract aiming at preventing global heating is an effort for decreasing the rates of greenhouse gases which accumulate in the atmosphere as a consequence of human activities and which is the basic factor triggering the global climate change and consequently it is an effort to produce a global solution for the climate crisis. Intergovernmental “Conferences of Parties” have been organized under the contract every year since 1994 which is the year of enforcement of the contract.
The third one of this “Conferences of Parties” was held in 1997 in Kyoto city of Japan and “Kyoto Protocol” which is deemed to be the most important contract signed under United Nations since it has power of sanction for struggling against climate change was accepted in this conference and it was put into force in 2005. Developed countries including England, France and Germany admitted their historical responsibility for greenhouse gases cumulatively accumulated in the atmosphere within the framework of this protocol and made binding commitments for decreasing emission over 1990 base year.
Steps for creating global, national and sector based emission inventories were taken using the modeling and methodologies developed and continuously updated by the scientific committees of the “Intergovernmental Climate Change Panel” and “United Nations Clean Development Mechanism” both within the framework of “Flexibility Mechanisms” given to the developed countries for fulfillment of the aforementioned commitments and within the scope of “Strategies for Preventing Climate Change”; and greenhouse calculations of activities creating and decreasing emission were carried up to international standards.
At that point, one of the most important steps for creating greenhouse gas inventories in terms of basic strategies and policies at the point of climate change/crisis has been the “Monitoring, Reporting, Verification” (MRV) approach incited to be implemented at international scientific level.
The carbon markets established in 2005 when Kyoto Protocol was enforced on the basis of MRV approach have arisen as incitement mechanism for the purpose of accelerating realization of the projects decreasing greenhouse gas in developing and underdeveloped countries within the scope of “Strategies for Preventing Climate Change”. In addition to the “Mandatory Carbon Markets” to which the countries committing emission decrease are subjected under Kyoto Protocol, “Voluntary Carbon Markets” in which the owners of the emission decreasing projects realized in countries like Turkey could include their own projects within the framework of environmental and social responsibility principles was created simultaneously.
While international institutions and entities providing certification for international Voluntary Carbon Markets such as “Verified Carbon Standard (VCS)” sustain their activities within the framework of MRV approach, the projects demanding access to this certification are continuously investigated and audited in “monitoring”, “reporting”, “verification” and “approval” format by “Independent Auditors” which have been accredited in conformity with international standards. In addition to ability to perform MRV applications of emission decreases created from projects willing to register within the framework of the Voluntary Carbon Markets in international standards, they are expected to contribute to Sustainable Development Purposes determined by the United Nations at national and regional levels and to show those contributions again in conformity with MRV aproach.
The biogas facilities based on transformation of methane gas released from decay of organic agricultural and animal wastes in oxygen-free environment into electrical and heat energy are placed in forefront compared to the other renewable energy projects in terms of emission decreasing capacity since they prevent access of the greenhouse gases to be released from such wastes under normal circumstances to the atmosphere. The biogas projects allow disposal of the aforementioned organic wastes using environmentalist methods and performs transformation of those wastes into organic fertilizer and thus create added value and on the other hand they decrease both polluting nature and external dependence of the national electricity network line dependent on intense fossil fuel use and/or imported fuels as a renewable energy project type.
As mentioned above, the stipulated annual emission decrease amount of our biogas projects which commit themselves voluntarily for audit and investigation by internationally accredited independent auditors and certification authorities as projected and managed in conformity with international standards are as follows:
FOCA = 106.591 tons CO2/year
BALIKESIR = 104.824 tons CO2/year
AYDIN = 79.944 tons CO2/year
Upon realization of all our projects the process of which continue at the point of access to International Voluntary Emission Decrease Certification; we will have prevented release of annual average 291.359 tons of CO2 to the atmosphere in the light of international methodologies. And this corresponds to forestation of 466.175 decars of land or withdrawal of 63.339 passenger cars from the traffic every year at the point of greenhouse gas decrease.